The total market cap for all cryptocurrencies stands at $293 billion, and whereas a lot of this worth has been generated by particular person merchants shopping for and promoting their very own personal stashes of crypto, it is also largely the results of huge funding funds. These are firms which have crypto property below administration value as a lot as $1 billion or upward, with most of them qualifying because the whales the cryptocurrency group typically talks about after each market motion.
But, other than merely buying and selling Bitcoin, Ether or many different cryptocurrencies, funds additionally typically make investments enterprise capital (VC) in blockchain — and crypto-related startups. This makes them doubly necessary for the expansion of the cryptocurrency trade, on condition that they help not solely the currencies of the long run, but additionally the platforms and firms that can harness these currencies to construct fully new monetary ecosystems.
That mentioned, most of funds have been backed by conventional enterprise capital, reminiscent of Andreessen Horowitz and Sequoia Capital. So, regardless that they’re supporting the emergence of the brand new crypto economic system, it will likely be one that can have robust, foundational hyperlinks with the monetary system — one thing many in the neighborhood suppose crypto will change.
The highest 5
Acquiring dependable, standardized knowledge on the property below administration of every main crypto fund could be very troublesome, if not inconceivable. Accordingly, this high 5 would not declare to be fully authoritative, on condition that it gleans out there knowledge from quite a lot of sources revealed at quite a lot of occasions. Nonetheless, it offers a reasonably strong account of the 5 corporations which might be probably the most important funds working in crypto as we speak, when it comes to digital property below administration and investments in crypto-related startups.
Digital Forex Group/Grayscale Investments
Digital Forex Group was based in 2015 by Barry Silbert, who had beforehand invested in such early cryptocurrency firms as Coinbase, Ripple and BitPay. It already has invested in almost 130 crypto-related tasks, with the typical measurement of seed rounds it was concerned in between 2016 and 2018 being $three.24 million. Provided that it has extra investments than just about each different fund within the trade, it will likely be no shock to listen to that it has backed a number of the most well-known crypto tasks and firms, together with Circle, Chainalysis, Blockchain, Shapeshift, Parity, Ledger, Luno, Kraken, Korbit and eToro.
One among its investments is Grayscale, a subsidiary of Digital Forex Group that invests immediately in cryptocurrencies and digital property. Grayscale introduced in its Q2 2019 monetary report that it had property below administration (AUM) value $2.7 billion. As a sign of simply how risky the AUM determine will be, it additionally revealed that this quantity had tripled for the reason that first quarter of 2019, with its devoted Bitcoin Belief having elevated 300% in comparison with the identical time final 12 months.
Extra revealingly, Grayscale’s newest report additionally detailed how most demand for crypto funding comes from institutional traders — who’ve represented 84% of its consumer base since July 2018. As such, it is clear that, removed from being a grassroots-based, decentralized ecosystem, crypto is already pushed very a lot by huge enterprise and massive cash.
Based in 2016 by cryptocurrency investor Olaf Carlson-Wee, Polychain Capital is one other crypto-focused hedge fund that nonetheless has backing from noncrypto enterprise capitalists. Again on the finish of 2014, it was reported that its AUM totalled $591.5 million, having plunged from a excessive on the finish of 2017 of round $1 billion. Nevertheless, knowledge from Crypto Fund Analysis states that, as of June 2019, it has $967 million of cryptocurrency below administration.
As with most different main funds, it additionally invests in blockchain- and crypto-related startups, with its tally of investments coming to 37 (in keeping with Crunchbase). These embrace Coinbase, Kik, Celo and dYdX, which Polychain has been capable of spend money on thanks largely to the elevating of round $175 million for its enterprise capital fund on the finish of 2018.
One factor that is value noting about Polychain Capital is that it has acquired vital backing for its enterprise capital and crypto funds from main VC corporations. In 2017, it closed a $200 million funding spherical through which Sequoia Capital, Andreessen Horowitz and Union Sq. Ventures all participated. It’s, subsequently, as a lot a product of conventional finance as it’s of the brand new cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Initially based in 2003 and primarily based in San Francisco, Pantera Capital was as soon as a standard funding fund, though it shifted its focus in 2013 to cryptocurrencies and blockchain tasks. In keeping with a spread of estimates, it has property below administration value something from $335 million to $724 million, though this may occasionally have fluctuated in latest months. It has additionally invested a substantial sum in 72 crypto-related startups and tasks, with it having raised at the very least $200 million in whole from exterior enterprise capital with a view to fund such investments ($13 million in 2016, $25 million in 2017, and $175 million in 2018-2019).
Pantera Capital has backers from exterior the cryptocurrency trade, which is important insofar because it signifies not solely mainstream curiosity in crypto but additionally the likelihood that it could really feel some form of oblique strain to spend money on tasks that might be extra pleasing to its monetary backers.
As for Pantera Capital’s basic outlook, it could come as no shock to listen to that the fund could be very bullish on the way forward for cryptocurrency and blockchain. In July, its CEO and founder, Dan Morehead, predicted that Bitcoin could hit $42,000 by the tip of 12 months and that it might climb as excessive as $356,000 in a few years.
Regardless of this confidence, Pantera Capital is not any stranger to setbacks. For example, it admitted in December 2018 that it could possibly be compelled to pay refunds and fines for round 25% of its preliminary coin providing portfolio, on condition that roughly this proportion of the portfolio is probably going in violating American securities legal guidelines. Equally, in the course of the 2018 bear market, its digital asset fund (i.e., its cryptocurrency fund) lost around 77% over the primary 10 months of that 12 months.
Launched in New York Metropolis in 2018 by former Goldman Sachs accomplice Michael Novogratz, Galaxy Digital is one other hundred-million-dollar crypto hedge fund. As of the tip of June 2019, its whole property below administration is $393.3 million, having dipped from Might’s whole of $421.6 million. Throughout 2018, the fund posted a internet loss on its stability sheet of $272.7 million, largely due to the bear market and crumbling crypto costs.
Along with investments in cryptocurrency, Galaxy Digital has additionally invested in round 20 crypto-related projects, together with Bakkt, BlockFi, Ripple, Block.one, BitFury, BitGo and Bitstamp. As with the opposite funds on this listing, such ventures have been made potential by investments from noncrypto backers. That is as a result of when Galaxy Digital launched in January 2018, it had not solely $400 million of Novogratz’s personal capital but additionally raised an additional $200 million by floating the corporate on Canada’s TSX exchange.
Whereas it is targeted totally on firms working exterior of the cryptocurrency sector, Andreessen Horowitz established its personal crypto funding fund, known as a16z. As of writing, a16z claims that its fund is value $350 million, whereas again in June 2018, when it was launched, the full got here to $300 million. It is a huge determine within the context of the crypto trade, however in comparison with the $7 billion in property that Andreessen Horowitz manages in whole, it appears a bit of extra modest. Nevertheless, it is seemingly that the worth of a16z has elevated since Might. Extra importantly, nonetheless, is the truth that a large funding fund with $7 billion in AUM can be concerned with crypto, which is a major vote of confidence for the trade.
This vote of confidence would not derive solely from direct funding in cryptocurrencies, nonetheless. Andreesseen Horowitz and a16z have additionally thrown enterprise capital at a range of cryptocurrency startups, spanning Coinbase, Maker, Filecoin, dYdX and CryptoKitties. For instance, in August 2018, the fund, along with Polychain Capital, invested $105 million in blockchain-based cloud startup Dfinity, having already contributed a mixed $61 million in a earlier spherical in February of that 12 months.
Even forgetting a16z, Andreesseen Horowitz is subsequently closely invested within the cryptocurrency trade and is among the greatest funds working within the house as we speak. Extra encouragingly, latest occasions point out that it desires to contain itself much more closely within the sector — as in April of this 12 months, it introduced plans to restructure its complete enterprise and register its staff as monetary advisors. The explanation? This would offer it with the authorized foundation to have interaction extra in riskier ventures, reminiscent of cryptocurrencies.
In fact, these aren’t the one huge funding funds working in crypto to the tune of lots of of hundreds of thousands of . Others embrace:
Union Sq. Ventures, which has round $256 million of cryptocurrency property below administration, in keeping with Crypto Fund Analysis.
Blockchain Capital, which launched in 2018 and raised $150 million for its new fund in March 2018, bringing its whole AUM to $250 million.
IDG Capital, which launched in China in 1992 and invests in noncrypto in addition to crypto property, and has $210 million digital property below administration.
BlockTower Capital, which launched in 2017 and has round $130 million in AUM (as of December 2018).
Enhance VC, a California-based fund that launched in 2014, which has $95 million in AUM.
Fenbushi Capital, a China-based crypto fund that had $50 million in property below administration in early 2018.
These aren’t the one vital funds working within the crypto trade. Nevertheless, in a rigorous study revealed in Might 2019, PwC and funding agency Elwood concluded that the overwhelming majority of cryptocurrency funding funds are in reality fairly small.
For example, the survey discovered that greater than 60% of 150 lively crypto hedge funds have lower than $10 million in AUM, with solely 10% of those funds managing greater than $150 million. It additionally discovered that the typical crypto fund’s AUM is barely $21.9 million, indicating that, regardless of a couple of huge fish, a lot of the sector is populated by smaller corporations attempting to capitalize on the cryptocurrency market.
Extra disconcertingly is that the report additionally notes an absence of impartial governance within the common fund, on condition that solely 25% have boards with impartial administrators, one thing which may be dangerous in instances of emergency, when clear, cautious choices are wanted. Equally, over 90% of crypto hedge funds do not use third-party analysis, suggesting that they endure from a deficit of exterior, goal enter.
Nonetheless, whereas this may point out that the crypto hedge fund sector is immature and susceptible, there was a pronounced improve in crypto hedge funds and the property below their administration in 2018, in keeping with Morgan Stanley analysis. In 2014, for example, there have been solely 31 such funds, whereas there have been 220 by November 2018. Extra impressively, these funds had $7.1 billion in property below administration in July 2018, pushed largely by demand and involvement from institutional traders.
It is because of this that it might be unwise to foretell that the significance and presence of crypto funds received’t develop even additional in 2019 and the years to return. Because the foregoing overview has proven, they perform as an indispensable medium between huge institutional traders and the nascent cryptocurrency trade. Which means the extra they develop, the extra crypto turns into a part of the broader monetary system.